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Bears lumber across a pristine landscape in remote Kamchatka, Russia.

Discovered just 60 years ago, this remote valley in Russia is a treasure trove for scientists studying microorganisms that survive under extreme conditions.

Tour the lab tent where scientists study the unique microbiology and geochemistry of the hot springs of Russia's Uzon Caldera.

Watch ancient text revealed and read for the first time in a thousand years! Archimedes was one of the world's greatest scientific and mathematical minds. His thoughts were inscribed on goatskin parchment, but the letters and diagrams were scraped off and written over by Greek monks in the Middle Ages. Now, using an intense x-ray beam generated at Stanford University's linear accelerator, some of the original Greek text will be revealed for the first time in the modern world.

Two Russian scientists--geologist Gennady Karpov and microbiologist Elizaveta Bonch-Osmolovskaya--discuss the unique volcanic features of the Uzon Caldera, the life forms living in the hot springs there, and the important questions they raise.

This clip introduces the 2006 expedition to remote Kamchatka, Russia. Twenty scientists arrive via helicopter to study the unique microbiology and geochemistry of the hot springs of the Uzon Caldera. Microorganisms that can survive the scalding temperatures and acidity in the springs are called extremophiles, and understanding these organisms helps answer questions about the origin and evolution of life on earth.

The remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Jason II measured temperatures as high as 200 degrees Celsius (392 degrees Fahrenheit) at these hydrothermal vents atop the Forecast Seamount in the Mariana Arc of the Pacific Ocean. Hydrothermal vents spew sulfur and other chemicals that support bacteria which use these chemicals to sustain life in a process called chemosynthesis. Snails and shrimp have colonized the site and are grazing on the chemosynthetic bacteria. Jason's suction sampler is used to collect some of these animals for analysis in the lab on board the ship.

Join Exploratorium geologist Eric Muller on a tour of world-famous geological features to be found in the national parkland just north of the Golden Gate bridge.